CRISI ECONOMICO-FINANZIARIA EUROPEA – STATISTI E POLITICANTI

Se la memoria non ci tradisce Alcide D e Gasperi affermò, all’incirca, che: ” Gli statisti pensano alle generazioni future, i politicanti alle elezioni”.

Osservando i recenti comportamenti dei maggiori leader europei per quanto riguarda il drammatico problema del debito greco, di quello portoghese e di quello, anche se meno rilevante, del debito italiano e spagnuolo, ci sembra che l’acuta affermazione di De Gasperi trovi puntuale ed amara conferma.

Non vi è dubbio che la crisi in atto tragga origine sia dall’insana politica del “laisser faire “alla finanza anglo-americana praticata gli scorsi anni dai governanti di Washington e di Londra, in primis, ma anche da altri governi- quantunque in misura minore- che dall’altrettanto insano indebitamento pubblico di Atene, Lisbona, Roma e Madrid.

“Cio’ non di meno” è altrettanto indubbio che i tentennamenti dei governi tedesco e francese, le ripetute, inopportune dichiarazioni dubitative da parte della Cancelliera Merkel e di autorevoli rappresentanti del suo governo negli organismi internazionali in ordine all’effettiva capacità e volontà di Roma ed Atene di rispettare gli impegni per una politica di rigore unitamente alla notevole lentezza dimostrata dai i vari organismi europei ed internazionali (che sono pur sempre espressione dei Governi! )nell’adozione di misure di salvataggio non hanno fatto che peggiorare la situazione alimentando gli attacchi della speculazione.

Anche se la storia non è, purtroppo,“magistra vitae “ ci sembra doveroso ricordare il ben diverso e lungimirante atteggiamento degli uomini di Governo statunitensi, britannici e canadesi, prima, europei dopo,di fronte alla situazione catastrofica in cui versavano nell’immediato dopoguerra le economie europee.

Già n el luglio del 1944 con la Conferenza internazionale di Bretton Woods i governi degli Stati Uniti, del Regno Unito e del Canada gettarono le basi del nuovo sistema economico internazionale istituendo la Banca Internazionale per la Ricostruzione e lo Sviluppo e, soprattutto, il Fondo Monetario Internazionale.

Nel giugno del 1945, quando il secondo conflitto mondiale era terminato in Europa ed appariva ormai segnato il destino dell’Impero del Sol Levante Henry Morgenthau j.r., Segretario al Tesoro statunitense,

dichiarò di fronte al Senato americano: ”I problemi finanziari e monetari internazionali sono stati una fonte di conflitto per un’intera generazione. Dobbiamo fare in modo che dopo questa guerra essi non diventino le basi di nuovi conflitti “.

Fu una dichiarazione d’intenti, coerente con le decisioni prese a Bretton Woods, che si tradusse in maniera incisiva nel 1947 nella c.d. “dottrina Truman “, dal nome dell’allora Presidente degli Stati Uniti, e che consistette in una strategia economica globale d’intervento che prenderà poi il nome di “Piano Marshall”.

George Marshall fu il Segretario di Stato(poi premio Nobel per la pace)che in un discorso –il 5 giugno 1947- all’Università di Harvard lanciò un appello ai governi dell’Europa affinché formulassero un programma di ricostruzione coordinata promettendo l’aiuto amichevole americano.

Il Piano Marshall, assieme agli altri piani di aiuto ad esso collegati, risulterà determinante per la ripresa economica dell’Europa. Il piano (European Recovery Program-E.R.P.) iniziò a funzionare verso la metà del 1948.

Gli Stati Uniti sostennero lo sforzo maggiore -il 70%(pari a circa l’1 % del P.I.L. statunitense di quegli anni).Contribuirono il Canada( per l’11,8%), paesi dell’America Latina(7,7 % ) ed altre nazioni.

Gli obiettivi del piano erano molteplicii: contrastare l’espansionismo sovietico, che poteva fruire in quegli anni della presenza nell’Europa Occidentale di forti partiti comunisti, consolidando, attraverso la rinascita economica, l’economia di mercato, la democrazia e la stabilità politica del continente; evitare che l’economia statunitense cadesse in recessione per mancanza di sbocchi europe alle proprie esportazioni e che, per conseguenza, si avesse in America un’elevata disoccupazione simile a quella del 1929,sostituire la Gran Brettagna come potenza guida del mondo libero.

Fino al dicembre del 1959 il vecchio continente poté, beneficiare di oltre 72 miliardi di dollari. Si trattò di una somma notevolissima ove si consideri il potere d’acquisto dell’epoca nei vari paesi europei e che nel 1959 1 dollaro veniva cambiato a 625 lit.

Dal 3 aprile 1948 al 30 giugno 1952 la Rep. Federale Tedesca ricevette complessivamente, tra prestiti (216,9 milioni di $ ) ed aiuti (1173,7 milioni di $ ), 1.390,6 milioni di dollari. Il Regno Unito ebbe 3.189,8 milioni di dollari; la Francia 2.713,6 milioni; l’Italia 1.508 milioni; l’Olanda 1. O83 milioni; Belgio e Lussemburgo 559 milioni; Danimarca 273 milioni.

Grazie a questo programma di aiuti il prodotto interno lordo dell’Europa occidentale(P.I.L. a.1938 =100 ) crebbe del 9,53% nel 1948; dell’8,19 % nel 1949; dell’8,86 %nel 1950 e, malgrado la crisi derivante dal conflitto coreano, del 5.94 % nel 1951. Il P.I.L. era di 119,6 miliardi di dollari nel 1947; nel 1951 fu di 158,5 miliardi. Il grande sviluppo economico avutosi a partire dagli anni sessanta in Europa non sarebbe stato quasi certamente possibile senza il Piano Marshall.

Altrettanto lungimiranti furono nel 1950 gli esponenti politici frances i Jean Monnet e Robert Schuman (allora Ministro degli Affari Esteri ) che proposero ai Governi d i Francia, Germania, Italia, Belgio, Lussemburgo, Paesi Bassi (dichiarazione Schuman del 9 maggio 1950 ) la messa in comune della produzione di carbone ed acciaio, materie fondamentali per l’industria.

La proposta venne subito accolta dai leader europei, tra i quali il Cancelliere Adenauer ed Alcide De Gasperi, tanto ch e il 19 aprile 1951 con il Trattato di Parigi fu creata la Comunità Europea del Carbone e dell’Acciaio(la C.E.C.A. ) che divenne operativa, con sede a Lussemburgo, il 23 luglio 1952. La C.E.C.A. rappresenta la prima, importantissima tappa del non facile processo d’integrazione europea. Processo che ebbe una grave battuta d’arresto dopo la bocciatura nel 1954 da parte del parlamento francese dell’accordo per la Comunità Europea di Difesa(C.E.D.). Si deve al liberale on. Martino, Ministro degli Affari Esteri, che organizzò dal 1° al 3 giugno del 1955 a Messina una conferenza, se il progetto europeista fu rilanciato.

Appena 21 mesi dopo (25 marzo1957 ) venne firmato il c.d. Trattato di Roma perché sottoscritto nell’Urbe che diede vita alla Comunità Economica Europea e all’Euratom (energia atomica ) che entrò in funzione il 1° gennaio 1958. Ne facevano parte gli stessi Stati che avevano sottoscritto il Trattato di Parigi. Le conseguenze positive, sotto il profilo dello sviluppo economico e sociale dell’Europa ed anche della pace, derivanti dalle iniziative coraggiose e dalle sagge decisioni di quegli uomini di Governo sono sotto gli occhi di tutti.

Non si è, invero, mai registrato nella storia dell’Europa un sessantennio sostanzialmente di progresso e di pace come quello decorso. Ora tutto ciò rischia di essere messo a repentaglio per miopi calcoli di bilancio ma soprattutto per le preoccupazioni elettorali di due leader (si fa per dire! ), Merkel e Sarkozy. Questi “ illuminati “ governanti non hanno evidentemente presente, ad es. che:

  • sul P.I.L. tedesco la componente esportazioni rappresenta circa il 50%,, e che il 40% c.a.delle esportazioni germaniche è diretto verso gli altri paesi dell’Unione Europea e che,secondo gli ultimi dati,nel 2011 le esportazioni tedesche verso la zona E.U. s ono aumentate dell’8,6%;
  • nel periodo 2000-1° trimestre 2010 degli insoluti vantati dalle banche tedesche nei confronti di istituti di credito stranieri (4,7 miliardi di dollari ) il 50% c.a. risultava di istituti dell’area E.U.R. (v.pag.29, Tab. 8 dello “Staff Report for the 2010 Art. IV Consultation – Fondo Monet. Intern. );
  • nel 2011 le esportazioni francesi sono state assorbite per il 38% dai principali paesi europei (16.5 % dalla Germania,l’8,2 % dall’Italia; il 7% dalla Spagna, 6,6 % dal Regno Unito );
  • un’eventuale insolvenza della Grecia, del Portogallo, dell’Italia o della Spagna avrebbe gravissime conseguenze sull’economie di Germania e Francia da cui non si salverebbero, probabilmente, né la costruzione europee, ovviamente, l’Euro …né la loro rielezione.

A questo punto viene naturale e sconsolatamente da dire, parafrasando un verso di Francois Villon (1431 -1480? ) che recita “Ou’ sont –elles les neiges d’antan? “ (=”Dove sono le nevi di una volta?”-v. “Ballade des dames du temp s jadis “), “ Ou’ sont ils les hommes d’Etat d’antan? “ (= “Dove sono gli statisti di una volta? ” ). Ora abbiamo a che fare solo con “politicanti“!

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