La legge elettorale che noi chiediamo

(articolo pubblicato su www.libertates.com)

I Comitati per le Libertà presentano la loro proposta per una legge elettorale che crei una vera democrazia diretta, permettendo ai cittadini di scegliere i propri candidati, votarli e giudicarli alla fine del mandato.

Il libro di riferimento “Maledetta proporzionale” può essere ordinato inviando un bonifico di € 10 (comprensivo di spese di spedizione) al conto corrente dei Comitati (IT65E030 3201 6030 1000 0057 203) specificando l’indirizzo a cui inviarlo.

PRINCIPI GENERALI
Il nostro programma si fonda sui principi della democrazia diretta, del libero mercato, del federalismo. In questo quadro, è centrale l’importanza del sistema elettorale: esso caratterizza in maniera decisiva l’intero sistema politico, perché permette ai singoli cittadini di scegliere i propri candidati, votarli e giudicarli alla fine del mandato.

RIFORMA ELETTORALE

Concordiamo sulla necessità di cambiare la legge attuale, il cosiddetto “Porcellum”, purché in senso liberale, maggioritario, federalista e aperto alla democrazia diretta.

MANIFESTO TEORICO

Il nostro testo di riferimento è il saggio “Maledetta proporzionale”, di Dario Fertilio, collana Bibliotheca Albatros.

PRINCIPI DI RIFORMA ELETTORALE

Per le elezioni politiche sosteniamo il sistema maggioritario secco, a un turno, sul modello inglese in quanto è quello che consente un rapporto il più possibile diretto fra elettori e candidati.

A questo fine devono essere obbligatorie per legge le elezioni primarie per la scelta dei candidati presentati dai partiti.
Siamo favorevoli allo svolgimento di primarie aperte (alle quali cioè possano candidarsi tutti gli iscritti e possano votare tutti i simpatizzanti) e garantite (cioè con una qualche forma di controllo pubblico).

Pensiamo che debba essere consentita la candidatura solo a chi risieda da almeno tre anni nel collegio, e debbano essere vietate le candidature in più collegi. Auspichiamo poi convenzioni locali, nelle quali i candidati di ogni partito abbiano l’occasione di confrontarsi tra loro e con gli elettori.
Per legge chiediamo che sia consentito di presentarsi alle elezioni, in singoli collegi, anche a candidati indipendenti, cioè non collegati a una lista di partito, ma in grado di raccogliere sul territorio un numero di firme sufficiente.

In caso di sfiducia parlamentare al premier eletto, si deve avviare automaticamente la procedura di scioglimento delle Camere.

I PERCHÈ DELLA SCELTA

Crediamo che il sistema maggioritario a un turno nelle elezioni politiche (secondo il principio “the first past the post”, ovvero il primo vince) sia il più trasparente e anche il più democratico e morale. Esso infatti è l’unico che possa essere illustrato, e compreso per mezzo di poche parole, anche dai cittadini privi d’istruzione o digiuni di politica.

Ci opponiamo invece al doppio turno perché, pur consentendo il bipolarismo, aumenta il potere contrattuale dei partiti, consente accordi sottobanco fra primo e secondo turno, incentiva i candidati “piglitatutto” e senza programma.
Ci opponiamo al sistema delle preferenze, perché questo sistema ha dimostrato in passato di essere permeabile al controllo degli apparati di partito e alla corruzione.

Contestiamo il sistema dei premi di maggioranza, come quello delle soglie di sbarramento per i partiti, perché entrambi si presentano inevitabilmente come “arbitrari”, aprendo la via a contestazioni e modifiche successive che minano la certezza del diritto e allontanano i cittadini dal voto.

Ci opponiamo infine al sistema proporzionale sperimentato nella Prima Repubblica: un censimento pseudo-ideologico che in realtà esalta il potere dei partiti e nei fatti priva i cittadini di qualsiasi potere di scelta e giudizio sull’operato dei governi.

FINANZIAMENTI

Per quanto riguarda i finanziamenti pubblici proponiamo che vengano dati ai singoli candidati come rimborso delle spese per la campagna elettorale.

Inoltre dovrebbe essere ammessi finanziamenti di singoli cittadini (non società od enti), con la fissazione di un limite massimo e deducibili dalle tasse.

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